History of Rome

Rome is situated on the banks of the River Tiber.
According to Varro's calculations, Rome was founded on April 21st 753BC.
Rome was first governed by Kinds (753-510 BC); then as a republic by consuls (510-530) and then finally by emperors (30BC to 476AD). During the middle Ages, the church established its temporal rule and Rome remained the seat of the Papal Court until September 20,1870 when the Italian Army entered Rome and the Eternal City became capital of a united Italy.
The Vatican, a small territory of 440 sq km occupied by St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Square and The Vatican Palaces, is under the sovereignty of the Pope, and it has been called the “Vatican City State” since 1929.


Jean Jacques Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau, was a French Political Philosopher. He was born in Geneva, 28 June 1712. This was a difficult time in France for government. The words of the French philosophers, travelled far during Rousseau's lifetime and it is said that Rousseau, was to eventually inspire the French Revolution. “I am like no one else in the whole world...” is how he began his book 'Confessions'.

As a student of Politics, Rousseau is a key topic when studying the beginnings of modern politics and political philosophy. I have to admit, when studying Rousseau, I found myself, becoming more and more interested in Rousseau himself that his philosophical/ political standings. Amongst the most intriguing of men, Rousseau truly believed himself to be an individual beyond that of normal self-appreciation. Nowadays It could be argued that Rousseau suffered dysmorphic Identity disorder, (formally known as Multiple Personality Disorder) or perhaps Manic Depression. He was referred to by other Parisian Intellectuals as a s”solipsist fantasist”, behaving in a way in which we might now view a romantic poet or artist.

He was both a professional musician and composer, as well as a best-selling romantic author. He enjoyed women, one woman, Madame d'Epinay's sister Sophie, Comptess d'Houdetot, in particular. Never to touch the woman, only to observe from a far, Sophie was both married and with a lover, Rousseau found his first and, it is presumed, his only love. It is said to be thought that Rousseau believed Sophie to the the real life incarnation one of his fictional characters, to which he referred to as Julie. Rousseau created many characters in his head, during his very own romantic period, with whom he held, many of his most treasured conversations. He did however, live for many years with a woman named Madame d'Warrens. Together they were entangled in a strange almost incestuous relationship. Madame d'Warrens choosing to become Rousseau's lover only to stop him seducing other younger women to whom he taught music, probably due to the Madame's jealousy. Rousseau, obviously feeling a strong needed for a mother figured, enjoyed a masochistic sexual orientation. His sexual needs almost lead to him being arrested, upon displaying his naked bottom to a group of women.

At an early stage in Rousseau's life he created his own musical notation, which he tried in many places to introduce, however; after a short return to Chambery, where he lived, he made his way to his apartments in Paris, France to present his ideas to the Academy of Science. Of course, he was unsuccessful; however he did not waste his time in Paris, creating a great network of friends...